They show that C60 aqueous suspensions prepared without any polar organic solvents not only have no acute or subacute toxicity to rodents but also protect their livers from damage by free radicals. Yadav, J. Fullerene: properties, synthesis and application. Research published in 1999 showed that fullerenes have the potential to act as biological antioxidants. They stay in the body for about an hour and can image the circulatory system. Prior to their discovery, only two well-defined allotropes of carbon were known—diamond (composed of a three-dimensional crystalline array of carbon atoms) and graphite (composed of stacked sheets of two-dimensional hexagonal arrays of carbon atoms). The absorption measurements show that the semiconductivity is preserved. Schwerdtfeger, P., Wirz, L. N., & Avery, J. Fullerene molecule has unique chemical, physical and physico-chemical properties. C60-PEG-Gd was injected into tumor-bearing mice. One of the potential antioxidants that has been enthusiastically discussed in the past twenty years is fullerene and its derivatives. One of the derivatives, 166Ho3+@C82 (OH)30, has been widely studied as a radioactive tracer for imaging of diseased organs and killing cancer tumors. In view of their unique properties such as very high mechanical properties even at low loading of reinforcements, gas barrier and flame related properties, many potential applications and hence the market for these materials have been projected in various sectors. In a now-famous 11-day series of experiments conducted in September 1985 at Rice University by Kroto, Smalley, and Curl and their student coworkers James Heath, Yuan Liu, and Sean O’Brien, Smalley’s apparatus was used to simulate the chemistry in the atmosphere of giant stars by turning the vaporization laser onto graphite. davidwolfe June 16, 2018. See also: Endohedral fullerenes. Fullerene is chemically reactive and can be added to polymer structures to form new copolymers with specific physical and mechanical properties. A., Wilkins, C., Friedman, S. H., ... & Kenyon, G. L. (1993). The fullerene family has a wide possibility for modification, as pointed out in Chapter 2.8, i.e., the substitution for carbon atoms constructing fullerene cages, accepting foreign atoms not only into the interstices formed by closest packing of fullerene cages, but also inside of each cage, and chemical bonds of organic radicals on the surface of the cluster. Charges used for electrostatic maps are computed using the NBO method. The molecular structure has been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31g* level of theory. Sijbesma, R., Srdanov, G., Wudl, F., Castoro, J. It was proved that the molecule can act as a semiconductor, conductor and under specific conditions as superconductor. This project concerns the effect of chirality of polymers on their properties, such as electron-optic properties and self-assembly. Medicinal applications of fullerenes. A fullerene is any molecule composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube.Spherical fullerenes are also called buckyballs, and they resemble the balls used in association football. W. Kroto, Robert F. Curl and Richard E. Smalley. This miraculous molecule, remarkable as it is, wasn’t discovered until 1985. Any molecule made up of only carbon atoms is fullerene. These properties make them desirable in items of jewellery. The optical properties of inorganic fullerene-like and nanotube MS 2 (M = Mo, W) material are studied through absorption and resonance Raman, and compared to those of the corresponding bulk material. From 1985 to 1990, a series of studies indicated that C60, and also C70, were indeed exceptionally stable and provided convincing evidence for the cage structure proposal. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 2. By attaching the hydrophilic moieties, fullerenes become water-soluble and can carry drugs and genes for cellular delivery. This refers to its ability to decrease the transmittance of light incident to it. The properties of polyimides can be dramatically altered by minor variations in structure. On a visit to Rice University, Houston, Texas, in 1984, Curl, an authority on microwave and infrared spectroscopy, suggested that Kroto see an ingenious laser–supersonic cluster beam apparatus developed by Smalley. Shungite is a unique, carbon-rich stone that’s believed to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and EMF exposure, and may help purify water. The first fullerene was discovered in 1985 by Sir Harold W. Kroto (one of the authors of this article) of the United Kingdom and by Richard E. Smalley and Robert F. Curl, Jr., of the United States. We have studied two different water-soluble fullerene C60 and C70 derivatives on human embryonic lung … Properties The fullerene structure is unique in that the molecule is borderless, uncharged, has no boundaries, no dangling bonds, and no unpaired electrons. They are safe and inert. Thus all the three types of nanocomposites provide opportunities and rewards creating new world wide interest in these new … Trivially, it is a change in light transmission based on the intensity. (2018). Photocatalysts for water splitting based on functional poymers containing metal complexes and nanoporous polymers. FULLERENE An allotrope of carbon The most famous fullerene is C60 Discovered by H W Kroto and R Smalley at Rice University ,USA (1985) Popularly known as Buckministerfullerene in honour of the American architect Buckminister Fuller The shape of C60 resembles the dome structure based on … Bakry, R., Vallant, R. M., Najam-ul-Haq, M., Rainer, M., Szabo, Z., Huck, C. W., & Bonn, G. K. (2007). Fullerene - Fullerene - Carbon nanotubes: In 1991 Iijima Sumio of NEC Corporation’s Fundamental Research Laboratory, Tsukuba Science City, Japan, investigated material extracted from solids that grew on the tips of carbon electrodes after being discharged under C60 formation conditions. These characteristics distinguish fullerene from other crystal structures, such as graphite or diamond, which have edges with dangling bonds and electrical charges. By adding a polymerizable group, a fullerene polymer can be obtained. [60] Fullerene is a powerful antioxidant in vivo with no acute or subacute toxicity. Carbon has many allotropes, such as diamond, graphite and so on. The influence of single-walled carbon nanotubes on optical properties of the poly[(2,5-bisoctyloy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] evidenced by infrared spectroscopy and anti … Fullerenes are relatively safe and inert, but despite this fact… After discovering fullerenes for some time, many chemical modifications of fullerenes were discovered. https://www.britannica.com/science/fullerene, American Chemical Society - The Discovery of Fullerenes. Oxidative stress is a major issue in a wide number of pathologies (neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, immune diseases, and cancer). Although in aqueous solutions fullerene derivatives have shown to be antioxidants, their properties in this regard within the cells are controversially discussed. Buckminsterfullerene does not exhibit "superaromaticity": that is, the electrons in the hexagonal rings do not delocalize over the whole molecule. We compare the Spitzer, AKARI and ISO mid-IR spectra of these objects and previously known fullerene-containing PNe M1-11 (Otsuka et al. Effects of mechanical flexion on the penetration of fullerene amino acid-derivatized peptide nanoparticles through skin. The molecule may be a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, or many other shapes and sizes. AROMATICITY Researchers have been able to increase the reactivity of fullerenes by attaching active groups to their surfaces. Their discovery has led to an entirely new understanding of the behaviour of sheet materials, and it has opened an entirely new chapter of nanoscience and nanotechnology—the “new chemistry” of complex systems at the atomic scale that exhibit advanced materials behaviour. demonstrated photodynamic therapy using Gd3+ ion-containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated fullerene in combination with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The superior properties of CNTs are not limited to electrical and thermal conductivities, but also include mechanical properties, such as stiffness, toughness, and strength. synthesized a fullerene-based peptide and observed its ability to penetrate flexed and unflexed skin. The Buckminsterfullerene or Carbon 60 (C60) molecule is a unique, oil-soluble molecule with an amazing power to prolong lifespan. Graphite has a layered structure in which hexagonal rings are connected to each other. According to Euler's theorem these 12 pentagons are required for closure of the carbon network consisting of n hexagons and C 60 is the first stable fullerene because it is the smallest possible to obey this rule. The main properties that made fullerenes so interesting for many different research groups but also for nanomaterial companies include: Simple structure – contain 60 atoms of carbon and has soccer-ball shape Hollowness – suggesting their potential uses as they can be … The fullerenes, particularly the highly symmetrical C60 sphere, have a beauty and elegance that excites the imagination of scientists and nonscientists alike, as they bridge aesthetic gaps between the sciences, architecture, mathematics, engineering, and the visual arts. They chose the imaginative name buckminsterfullerene for the cluster in honour of the designer-inventor of the geodesic domes whose ideas had influenced their structure conjecture. For example, fullerene is notoriously insoluble and adding a suitable group can enhance solubility. Liu et al. Although in aqueous solutions fullerene derivatives have shown to be antioxidants, their properties in this regard within the cells are controversially discussed. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY TKMM COLLEGE NANGIARKULANGARA 2. The third allotrope of carbon is fullerene. Properties and Applications of Fullerenes. Fullerenes having spherical geometry are called buckyballs. is fullerene. Fullerene C 60 (buckyballs or buckminsterfullerene) is a nanostructured allotrope of carbon (Fig. Fullerenes are cage like molecules. Practical applications, however, will only be realized when accurate structural control has been achieved over the synthesis of these new materials. They are excellent conductors of heat and electricity, and they possess an astonishing tensile strength. From the elements of the periodic table to the processes that create everyday objects—these are just a few of the things that the science of chemistry can teach us. Fullerene is a powerful antioxidant that reacts easily and quickly with free radicals, which are often the cause of cell damage or death. Experiments showed that the size of an encapsulated atom determined the size of the smallest surrounding possible cage. Preparation of PEG-conjugated fullerene containing Gd3+ ions for photodynamic therapy. Minute samples of He@C60 with unusual isotope ratios have been found at some geologic sites, and samples also found in meteorites may yield information on the origin of the bodies in which they were found. Alkali metals and alkaline earth metals as well as early lanthanoids may be trapped by vaporizing graphite disks or rods impregnated with the selected metal. Fullerene, also called buckminsterfullerene, any of a series of hollow carbon molecules that form either a closed cage (“buckyballs”) or a cylinder (carbon “nanotubes”). These were discovered in 1985 by Harold. In this study, porcine skin was used as a model of human skin. The radioactive metal is trapped inside the carbon shell, which is very stable and resistant to human metabolism. The molecular vibrations are The fullerene structure is similar to graphite, but a pentagonal ring may also exist in the fullerene structure. They can display the photochromic effect. Network covalent solids. Le tube peut être fermé ou non à ses extrémités par une demi-sphère. Traditional bone wax has lots of shortcomings such as the risk of infection and inflammation and the ability to hinder osteogenesis that limit its clinical applications. In a network solid, there are no individual molecules. The fullerenes constitute a third form, and it is remarkable that their existence evaded discovery until almost the end of the 20th century. Compounds with antiviral activity often have great medical value, and many different modes of pharmacological action have been described. Our customer service representatives are available 24 hours a day, from Monday to Sunday. Fullerenes have optical limiting properties. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON. The C60 molecule undergoes a wide range of novel chemical reactions. Cylindrical fullerenes are named nanotubes. The most abundant form of fullerene is Buckminster fullerene (C60), which has 60 carbon atoms arranged in a spherical structure. Particularly interesting in fullerene chemistry are the so-called endohedral species, in which a metal atom (given the generic designation M) is physically trapped inside a fullerene cage. The addition of 1 mass% fullerene had little effect on the elastic moduli, tensile strength and ductility, whereas the addition of 5 mass% fullerene slightly decreased them. C60 Oil (Carbon 60, Fullerene) Supplement Health Benefits + Risks. In experimental rat trials, it was shown that C60 may promote better skin barrier function, especially when administered topically (as opposed to being injected into the skin). The elongated cousins of buckyballs, carbon nanotubes, were identified in 1991 by Iijima Sumio of Japan. Fullerene (C60) and its derivatives have potential antiviral activity and are of great significance for the treatment of HIV infection. Organic Letters 2017 , 19 (11) , 2893-2896. These all show potential applications in diagnostics. Gharbi, N., Pressac, M., Hadchouel, M., Szwarc, H., Wilson, S. R., & Moussa, F. (2005). Metal fullerenes have been found to be non-toxic. The halogen atoms can be replaced by other groups, such as phenyl (a ring-shaped hydrocarbon with the formula C6H5 that is derived from benzene), thus opening useful routes to a wide range of novel fullerene derivatives. Subtle changes in the structures of the dianhydride and/or diamine components will have significant effects on the properties of the final polyimide. Fullerene and its derivatives have enormous potential in materials science owing to … Liu, J., Ohta, S. I., Sonoda, A., Yamada, M., Yamamoto, M., Nitta, N., ... & Tabata, Y. The first fullerene was discovered in 1985 by Sir Harold W. Kroto (one of the authors of this article) of the United Kingdom and by Richard E. Smalley and Robert F. Curl, Jr. , of the United States. Rouse, J. G., Yang, J., Ryman-Rasmussen, J. P., Barron, A. R., & Monteiro-Riviere, N. A. Some of these derivatives exhibit advanced materials behaviour. During the period 1985–90 Kroto, working with colleagues at the University of Sussex, Brighton, England, used laboratory microwave spectroscopy techniques to analyze the spectra of carbon chains. The examined properties include the lattice structure and the presence of orientational disorder and/or rotational dynamics (of both fullerenes and cocrystallizing moieties), thermodynamic properties such as decomposition enthalpies, and charge transport properties. (2007). Carbon Properties - What are the Physical Properties of Carbon? Fullerene-Based Organic−Inorganic Photoluminescent Nanocomposites Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Synthesis, Properties, and Semiconducting Characteristics of BF2 Complexes of β,β-Bisphenanthrene-Fused Azadipyrromethenes. Through molecular simulation studies and experimental observations, the inhibitory effect of C60 on HIV-P was confirmed. Therefore, this study examined the optical properties of C 60 fullerene, including the excitation and emission characteristics found in organic non-polar solvents with slightly different polarity. Magnetic Silica Particles for DNA & RNA Isolation, Immobilization of Antibody on Macro Carriers, Immobilization of Antibody on Silicon Surface, Custom Upconverting Nanoparticle Conjugation, Properties and Applications of Carbon Nanoparticles. Fullerene, also called buckminsterfullerene, any of a series of hollow carbon molecules that form either a closed cage (“buckyballs”) or a cylinder (carbon “nanotubes”). Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. They can also change light transmission based on intensity and this is referred to as a photometric effect. These characteristics distinguish fullerene from other crystal structures, such as graphite or diamond, which have edges with dangling bonds and electrical charges. The modifi their physicochemical properties, such as conductive, cation of polystyrene with carbon nanoparticles was optical, mechanical, and catalytic characteristics, and performed in the following way: the weighed samples promotes the occurrence of new properties, e.g., bio of polymer and fullerene (C ) were separately dis logical activity [1]. (2015). The development of efficient and safe gene or drug carriers has become the focus of attention. The antiviral activity of fullerene derivatives is based on a variety of biological properties, including their unique molecular structure and antioxidant activity. The apparatus could vaporize any material into a plasma of atoms and then be used to study the resulting clusters (aggregates of tens to many tens of atoms). The core of fullerene is very hydrophobic, and the functional groups attached to the core further increase the behavioral complexity of the fullerene molecule. They can be of any shape, such as ellipsoid, sphere or tube (Figure 1). Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. ... Nanotubes are a type of fullerene and are molecular-scale tubes of carbon arranged similarly to the layers in graphite. Any molecule made of only carbon atoms is fullerene. Structural and electrochemical properties of fullerene-coated silicon thin film as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries. (2007). What are the Physical Properties of Carbon? Fullerene-60 has been extensively tested for use in skincare applications, especially when the news spread about it's potential UV-shielding properties. Omissions? The purest form of carbon is 'Fullerene’. Synthesis of a fullerene derivative for the inhibition of HIV enzymes. Our customer service representatives are available 24 hours a day, from Monday to Sunday. Research in this field is driven by the need to functionalize fullerenes and tune their properties. They have the potential to function as a semiconductor, conductor, and superconductor under certain conditions. Cylindrical ones are called carbon nanotubes or buckytubes. Antioxidant properties are based on the fact that fullerenes have a large number of conjugated double bonds and low lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) which can easily absorb electrons, leading to attacking free radicals. The fullerene is able to acquire the missing electrons by reaction with potassium to form first the K 6 C 6− 60 salt and then the K 12 C 12− 60 In this compound the bond length alternation observed in the parent molecule has vanished. Nevertheless, the positions of the excitons are altered in comparison to the bulk. PROPERTIES OF FULLERENE 12. Structure, properties and applications of fullerenes 17 Hexagons = (carbon atoms) – 20 2 Fullerenes composed of less than 300 carbon atoms, or endohedral fullerenes, are commonly known as “buckyballs”, and include the most common fullerene, buckminsterfullerene, C60 (shown in Fig.3). Cylindrical fullerenes are given the name nanotubes. Home > Support > Technology > Nanoparticles Techniques > Properties and Applications of Carbon Nanoparticles > Properties and Applications of Fullerenes. To study the sensitive optical response of C 60 , different solvents were selected that had similar chemical structure and polarity; these were toluene and xylene. The entry of any compound into the nucleus of intact cells is a major challenge, as metastasis is limited by at least three membrane barriers: the cell membrane, the inner membrane, and the nuclear membrane. Can you filter your way through our chemistry quiz? Nanotubes in particular exhibit a wide range of novel mechanical and electronic properties. A fullerene is an allotrope of carbon whose molecule consists of carbon atoms connected by single and double bonds so as to form a closed or partially closed mesh, with fused rings of five to seven atoms. Photophysical properties of the new triads as well as reference BODIPY–fullerene and ferrocene–BODIPY dyads were investigated by pump‐probe spectroscopy in the UV/Vis and NIR spectral regions following selective excitation of the BODIPY‐based antenna. The molecule is three-dimensional and spherical and its properties can be described as follows: 1. The study not only confirmed that carbon chains were produced but also showed, serendipitously, that a hitherto unknown carbon species containing 60 atoms formed spontaneously in relatively high abundance. hypothesized that because the C60 molecule has approximately the same radius as the cylinder describing the HIV-P active site, there is a strong hydrophobic interaction between the C60 derivative and the surface of the active site. STANDARD THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES This table gives the standard state chemical thermodynamic properties of about 2400 individual substances in the crystalline, l iquid, and gaseous states. Fullerenes with a spherical geometry are called buckyballs. Fullerenes are the third allotropic form of carbon material after graphite and diamond. Fullerenes consist of 20 hexagonal and 12 pentagonal rings as the basis of an icosohedral symmetry closed cage structure. With fullerenes now available in workable amounts, research on these species expanded to a remarkable degree, and the field of fullerene chemistry was born. Winner of 1996 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. "Encapsulation of one or more metal atoms inside fullerene cages (endohedral metallofullerenes) is one of the most exciting topics in the fullerene science, since it could give rise to new species or materials with novel properties which are unexpected for hollow fullerenes. Helium (He) can also be trapped by heating C60 in helium vapour under pressure. The molecule readily adds atoms of hydrogen and of the halogen elements. Professor of Chemistry, University of Sussex, Brighton, England. 3. MRI activity was introduced into C60-PEG of the PDT photosensitizer. These molecules can therefore be used as an optical limiter that can be used in protective eye wear and sensors. A selection of different 3D shapes for regular fullerenes. This paper reports about fullerenes, its structure, properties and applications. Fullerene chemistry is a field of organic chemistry devoted to the chemical properties of fullerenes. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). What is the photochromic effect? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Wudl et al. C-60 molecule has a shape of soccer ball. During the visit, Kroto realized that the technique might be used to simulate the chemical conditions in the atmosphere of carbon stars and so provide compelling evidence for his conjecture that the chains originated in stars. Figure 1. Such properties hold the promise of exciting applications in electronics, structural materials, and medicine. Fullerene "buckyballs" are also molecular solids. David Wolfe News health Health & Longevity News Remedies Research Science 38. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication can be suppressed by several antiviral compounds that are effective in preventing or delaying the onset of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Using a laser to vaporize graphite rods in an atmosphere of helium gas, these chemists and their assistants obtained cagelike molecules composed of 60 carbon atoms (C60) joined together by single and double bonds to form a hollow sphere with 12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal faces—a design that resembles a football, or soccer ball. Another potential medical application of C60 is related to the photoexcitation of fullerenes. Fullerenes are forms of carbon, and include nanotubes and buckyballs. 2013), M1-12, M1-20 (García-Hernández et al. Fullerene derivatives with strong electron-accepting abilities have been extensively used as electron transport layers (ETLs) of inverted (p–i–n) planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (iPSCs); however the effect of a specific heteroatom site within the fullerene derivative on its electron transport properties has scarcely been studied. In this study, we designed a novel biodegradable bone wax with desirable angiogenic and antibacterial ability and low foreign body reaction by mixing calcium sulfate, poloxamer, and cupric ions. These can be of any shape like ellipsoid, sphere or tube. Les nanotubes de carbone (en anglais, carbon nanotube ou CNT) sont une forme allotropique du carbone appartenant à la famille des fullerènes [1].Ils sont composés d'un ou plusieurs feuillets d'atomes de carbone enroulés sur eux-mêmes formant un tube. 2010) and Tc1 (Cami et al. Graphite has layered structure in which hexagonal rings are linked to each other. The shape of this molecule is called a truncated icosahedron, similar to a football, and it contains 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Corrections? Substances are listed by molecular formula in a modified Hill order; all compounds not containing carbon appear first, followed by those that contain carbon. Thakral, S., & Mehta, R. M. (2006). Updates? We have studi… They also create active derivatives. Chemical Properties of Fullerenes. These properties lead to a wealth of applications exploiting them, including advanced composites requiring high values of one or more of these properties. Please do not hesitate to contact us if you need free consultation and a detailed quotation of your project. Chelating and incorporation of Gd3+ can convert C60-PEG derivatives into photosensitizers with both diagnostic and therapeutic functions. Experiments in mice performed by Najla Gharbi and colleagues demonstrated this remarkable feature. Two fullerene structures: an elongated carbon nanotube and a spherical buckminsterfullerene, or “buckyball.”. The fullerene structure is unique in that the molecule is borderless, uncharged, has no boundaries, no dangling bonds, and no unpaired electrons. Direct delivery of drugs and biomolecules into cells through cell membranes has received more and more attention. Particularly important are crystalline compounds of C60 with alkali metals and alkaline earth metals; these compounds are the only molecular systems to exhibit superconductivity at relatively high temperatures above 19 K. Superconductivity is observed in the range 19 to 40 K, equivalent to −254 to −233 °C or −425 to −387 °F. The Physical properties of Carbon are the characteristics that can be observed without changing the substance into another substance. C 60 fullerene has 60 π electrons but a closed shell configuration requires 72 electrons. Click image to refresh the verification code. It readily accepts and donates electrons, a behaviour that suggests possible applications in batteries and advanced electronic devices. Three novel fullerene derivatives containing a C 60-fluorene core and thiophenyl, terthiophenyl and tetrathiophenyl groups grafted at the 2-position of the fluorene ring, respectively, were synthesized and characterized.Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were investigated systematically. In 1996 the trio was awarded the Nobel Prize for their pioneering efforts. The C60 molecule was named buckminsterfullerene (or, more simply, the buckyball) after the American architect R. Buckminster Fuller, whose geodesic dome is constructed on the same structural principles. Fullerenes 1. Fullerenes: An introduction and overview of their biological properties. In fact, fullerenes can be excited from the ground state to C60 by photoexcitation. The resulting compounds (assigned the formulas M@C60) have been extensively studied. Endohedral metallofullerenes are fullerenes in which metal ions are trapped within their cages. Stimulated by the recent preparation and characterization of the first [50]fullerene derivative, decachlorofullerene[50] (Science 2004, 304, 699), we have performed a systematic density functional study on the electronic and spectroscopic properties of C50, its anions and derivatives such as C50Cl10 and C50Cl12. Fullerene or C 60 is soccer-ball-shaped or I h with 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The authors prove through experimental data that photosensitizer tumor targetability and MRI activity significantly promote the PDT effect of tumors. Materials Chemistry and Physics 2009 , 113 (1) , 249-254. In 1990 physicists Donald R. Huffman of the United States and Wolfgang Krätschmer of Germany announced a simple technique for producing macroscopic quantities of fullerenes, using an electric arc between two graphite rods in a helium atmosphere to vaporize carbon. The resulting condensed vapours, when dissolved in organic solvents, yielded crystals of C60. The most interesting properties of fullerenes in medicine are their antioxidant activity and sensing/detection capabilities, and the most interesting potential application of fullerenes in nanopharmacology is the development of targeted drug delivery systems.